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> but geometric AS organic.
Exactly. I think that's what WAD was trying to achieve with his geometrical spinach.
I think the whole M-formula "overcoming-technical-limitations-in-small-print" thing is a red herring. I think WAD did what he did because he liked the way it looked -- he liked the "snap" and "action".
@John: OK, but “chiro-” is “the hand”, while the “cut and curved” systematized in the M-theory is not simply a thing “borrowed” from calligraphy but — from what I have read in Tiffany’s PDF about Dwiggins — is beyond that, it’s a reflection upon the variability between different elemets in order to create tension and features that makes things more attractive and more functional as well (I dare saying “more wholesome”?).
Yes. I was explaining the use of the term chirographic, not justifying its use in this particular case (which I hadn't noticed). Dwiggins' M-formula is not chirographic, either in origin or in application. Indeed, what is notable about its application is that Dwiggins applies the cut into the thicker stem transitions, whereas a chirographic cut is only really possible at the thinnest transition.
David: But I want terms for three kinds of type:
1. represents a style of writing that could be written, with a single tool from a single position. (Zapf Chancery Italic)
2. represents a style of type not completely written, but made with a single tool from a few positions. (Times)
3. represents a style of type that requires multiple tools and positions, and writing is not being represented. (Eurostyle).
Is that Calligraphy, Chirography, and Construgraphy?
1. Chirographic (of which calligraphic is one subset).
2. Parachirographic (which covers the majority of historical type design; Peter Enneson's term).
3. Non-chirographic (of which there are various subsets, e.g. geometrically constructed).
Great thread! I hope to read it all one day. :-/
BTW, I propose the adjective: cuspy.
BTW - missspelling - it should be Evert "Bloemsma"
Under this rubric I would add: Berthold & Margaret Wolpe, noting Albertus as an example, as well as a lot of hand lettering such as Faber covers.
(Which happen to be the subject of a recent web gallery at the Guardian: http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/gallery/2009/jul/10/publishing-fiction?p... )
Wolpe is a good mention, Toby. Check out his lesser known Pegasus.