I've just come across "bitfaux" (http://soteropolitypes.net/font_bitfaux.htm). What other examples of this sort are out there? (Fonts that include smooth curves yet clearly reference bitmap edges.)
This is a bit off, but the ultimate bitmap derived fonts are Verdana and Georgia. Obviously not what you were looking for, but interesting nonetheless.
The lovely 'Pure', by/from Lust.
Not fonts, but some beautiful hand lettering by Marian.
This one immediately springs to mind – Citizen by Zuzana Licko
«Autoscape» was developed from an existing design by Andrew Welch, Carl R. Osterwald, Stephen Gilardi and William I. Johnston, which in turn was based on the 9-point bitmap of the standard «Monaco» font. — Lineto