I'm putting together a list of type styles which can be thought of as defining particular eras. It's for an etymological English dictionary project: every word set in type/lettering contemporary with when the word was first used. Since the Latin alphabet is first used in around 600BC, this is as far back as the list goes.
Preferably I'd like to use examples from the English-speaking world where possible.
I thought I'd put my list out there for your comments, improvements, suggestions, edification, that sort of thing.
2000+: FF Dax
1950 - 2000: Helvetica
1900 - 1950: Futura (Architype Renner)
1800 - 1900: Clarendon (Adobe)
1700 - 1800: Baskerville (Berthold)
1500 - 1700: Fell types (HF&J)
1200 - 1500: Blackletter textura (HF&J)
800 - 1200: Carolingian minuscule (Canada Type Luminari)
500 - 700: Half uncial (Linotype Neue Hammer Unziale)
300 - 500: Uncial (Linotype Omnia)
100 - 300: Classical Roman Lapidary (Trajan)
-100 - 100: Early Roman Lapidary (Lithos / Herculanum)
-400 - -100: Early Greek Lapidary (Any ideas? For an example see http://www.textism.com/writing/?id=2)
This list comes partly from: