I am looking to make a list of typefaces that would've been in vogue (or that represent the 'in vogue' style) in the USA in the 1840's - 1860's or so.
Issued earlier but still very much in use in 1850:BulmerCaslonWalbaumBaskervilleBell
And Monotype Clarendon was first released in 1845.
Know anyone with a specimen book from Bruce's Type Foundry? That'd be your holy grail.
Also good would be the Doug Clouse book on Mackellar, Smiths & Jordan pictured below.
More:Binny Old StyleMonotype Old Style