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Pardon my amateurism.
I am looking for sources (books, articles, researchers,..) on the geometric analysis of letter shapes. All typography books and sites I have seen are concerned on type design aesthetically and historically, but do not address its geometric, non-artistic and non-aesthetic foundations:
- decomposition of letters in sub-shapes, structure of sub-shapes and comparison of letters' super-structures
- mathematical definitions of distance between shapes and letters, geometric definition of legibility
- analysis of 1D (no width) versus 2D (with width), geometric analysis of fonts
- geometric analysis and comparisons (and critiques) of fonts, of alphabets
- conceptualisation of new letters
A circle-shaped device used to terminate a stroke, for example on the end of the arm on r, or the tail tip of y. Ball terminals are a prominent feature of so-called "modern roman" types which came into existence in the second half of the 18th century with the appearance of Didones and types used by the Fourniers as well as Giambattista Bodoni. Ball terminals are typically drawn in a strict geometric form of a pure circle. Some types however, principally Baskerville's roman type, feature organically-shaped ball terminals.