Indices : Terminology : Ductus

Ductus is the path the writing implement makes in forming a letter. Typefaces are formed by other tools than the (broadnibbed or flexical) pen, but the contrast patterns of the shapes that are constructed in type traditionally paraphrase the shapes formed by the stroke of the pen. Every typeface that deliberately imitates the broadnibbed pen has (or borrows) a ductal logic.

See also Modulation, ductal logic.

Greek Ductus

Communication Arts

Indices : Publications : Communication Arts

Publisher: Communication Arts/Coyne & Blanchard, Inc. (USA)
Frequency: 8 Annually

Founded in 1959, it is a leading trade journal for visual communications. It’s the largest design magazine in the world with audited paid circulation of 74,834. This includes their Design, Advertising, Illustration, Photography and Interactive annuals.


revista tiypo

Indices : Publications : tiypo

Director: Hector Montes de Oca
Editor: Francisco Calles
Co-Editor: Nacho Peón
Language: Spanish

A typography and design magazine published in Mexico City. Since 2002.
tiypo is the only magazine in Mexico specialized in typography, the interest of tiypo is to spread the typographic and iconografic work that is developed inside and outside Mexico.
In addition it wants to be the main forum of new generation of Mexican typographers, that in the last ten years, have been creating new typographies that little by little have filtered in lands of the national and international design.
Tiypo also has developed parallel projects in which it has invited to participate diverse designers from Argentina, Germany, The Netherlands, USA, Venezuela, Spain and Mexico. In these projects, the typography was applied to posters (Tipografía, Lenguaje visible), animations (tiypo-movil) and recently the creation of a dingbat called Mexinbat tiypo.



Indices : Terminology : End User License Agreement (EULA)

A legal document that outlines the licensing terms for a particular software. These terms usually list the manners in which the software may or may not be used. In regard to fonts, there are several common topics that Foundries must consider allowing or disallowing. Among these are: Number of Output devices covered by license, server installation, back-up copies, embedding, distribution to a service bureau, modifications, transfer of license, &c.

For a detailed understanding of the issues surrounding EULAs for fonts, read Tiffany Wardle’s article The Case for a User Friendly EULA.
EULA chart


Indices : Blackletter : Textura

A style of Blackletter. Also called Gothic or Gotisch.

By the 1100s, scriptoriums in and around Paris had so altered Carolingian Minuscule that the lettering styles of the day no longer bore any resemblance to those of c.800. This geographic area—Paris and its environs—held the avant garde of the mid-1100s onwards. The 1140s, for instance, saw the creation of the Gothic style of architecture in St. Denis, a Parisian suburb.


Indices : Typefaces : Century

Theodore Low DeVinne (1829—1914), printer of The Century magazine, designed a stronger, bolder and more readable face for the magazine and commissioned Linn Boyd Benton (1844—1932) of ATF to cut it.

L.B. Benton cut it on the newly invented Benton punch-cutting machine and in 1895 was christened Century Roman. Afterwards, a companion face was created for ATF by L.B. Benton: Century no. 2, later called Century Broad-face.

This face became the basis for Century Expanded, designed by L.B.’s son, Morris Fuller Benton (1872-1948) in 1902. Over the course of three more years, the italic, bold and bold italics were developed.

FF Meta

Indices : Typefaces : FF Meta

PT 55, the design that would later become FF Meta, was devised by Erik Spiekermann for the German Post Office (Deutsche Bundespost) in 1985. The Post Office, who was using Helvetica at that time, cancelled their commission at the last minute. Spiekermann’s design went into hibernation. Interestingly enough, the post office did eventually change their corporate face—to Frutiger, which they still use today.


American Institute of Graphic Arts (AIGA), the professional association for design, is committed to furthering excellence in design as a broadly-defined discipline, strategic tool for business and cultural force. AIGA is the place design professionals turn to first to exchange ideas and information, participate in critical analysis and research and advance education and ethical practice.

The AIGA has chapters in most major US cities.



Indices : Terminology : Lowercase

Lowercase characters evolved from several hand written or cursive letterforms. Some of the most notable are various Uncial forms and those of the carolingian minuscule. As the handwritten characters evolved, they developed ascenders and descenders that extended beyond the Baseline and x-height. Larger characters, often differing in form from the smaller characters, were used to demarcate important names or the beginnings of pages or sections. These larger characters were often based on lapidary forms.

Word Shape

Indices : Terminology : Word shape

Word shape is the overall visual impression of the outer boundary of a given word. Word shape is attributed as one of the key factors in readability and is widely considered the reason that Lowercase words are more readily recognizable than their Uppercase equivalent. The belief is that because uppercase words always have a rectangular word shape they are less distinct than lowercase words which have a varying word shape, given definition by ascenders and descenders that create unique, and therefore more recognizable shapes.