Indices : Terminology : Bouma

Bouma: a hypothesized visual-syntactic atom of immersive reading; almost always the blurry notan of a string of letters; usually the blurry outline of a single word in the parafovea. The term is a simplification of “Bouma-shape” as used by Insup Taylor and/or Paul Saenger, derived from Herman Bouma, a [retired] Dutch scientist.

Most cognitive psychologists reject this hypothesized importance of the bouma in reading, immersive or otherwise. The dominant reading model in cognitive psychology is the parallel letterwise recognition model. Research experiments which would have different predicted outcomes for the two different theories have supported parallel letterwise recognition over the bouma theory.


Capital letters, also called Majuscule or Uppercase are derived from inscriptional forms of the alphabet which the Romans adopted from the Etruscans. One distinguishing featue of capital letters is that they are of uniform height; the absence of ascenders or descenders (generally) is another feature of the upper case. These inscriptional forms of the alphabet were also the basis for several writing hands that followed, including square capitals and Uncial lettering.

Capital letters are a feature of the Greek, Roman, Armenian and Cyrillic Alphabets. These alphabets are classified as Bicameral because they do contain two distinct cases.


Indices : Terminology : Em

Pronounced like it is spelled, an em is a measurement equal to the current point size. An em dash is a dash the width of the given em. Because “em” and “en” sound so much alike, the em is sometimes referred to as the “mutton.”

See the related en.

The Em

Additional Articles:
The Em, by Cyrus Highsmith.

The website is an eternally evolving not-for-profit typography project founded by David John Earls in 1999. Its original incarnation was in a magazine format, covering interviews, software reviews and tutorials from a range of contributors. Later, it turned into a typography news website that prided itself on the speed of updates – back then the website was being updated on a nearly daily basis. During its third and current fourth phase, it is a collaborative project between David and Yves Peters – David providing recent typography news with commentary, and Yves writing comprehensive reviews of the cream of recent typeface releases.

Melbert B. Cary Jr. Graphic Arts Collection

Indices : Libraries : Melbert B. Cary Jr. Graphic Arts Collection

The Rochester Institute of Technology Wallace Library is home to the Melbert B. Cary Jr. Graphic Arts Collection, curated by David Pankow. The Cary Collection is one of the country’s premier libraries on the history and practice of printing. In 1969, the Cary Collection was presented to RIT by the Mary Flagler Cary Charitable Trust as a memorial to Mr. Cary. Today the library houses some 20,000 volumes and a growing number of manuscripts and correspondence collections. Also included are impressive holdings on bookbinding, papermaking, type design, calligraphy and book illustration. The goal of developing the digital image database is to enable users all over the world to sample the wealth of rich materials housed in the collection.

St. Bride Printing Library

Indices : Libraries : St. Bride Printing Library

The St Bride Printing Library is located in London, England. It is one of the largest libraries of printing history in the world. It’s collection particularly surveys British printing and typographic works from the 19th and 20th centuries. Its reading room is open to the general public.

The Friends of St Bride has been organizing annual conferences in the library every autumn since 2002. These have all had a typographic focus. Past conference themes have included Hidden Typography, Bad Type and Temporary Type.

FAQ Font Sharing

Wiki Categories: 

Indices : FAQs : Font Sharing

What About Sharing Fonts?
Graphic Designers and computer users often ask, “what’s wrong with sharing font files?” The truth is that there may not be anything wrong with the situation. But the answer to the question requires much thought and consideration.

Fonts are software, and software is generally used according to terms set out by its author. If the author does not want anyone to ever use his software under any circumstances, he probably will never share it with anyone. But, should he choose to let it out into the world, he would be wise to consider how he would like to to be used.

Johann Gutenberg

Indices : Designers : Johann Gutenberg

A man of mystery. Sadly, very little is known about him. His real name was probably Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden, but he most likely went by a series of nicknames, such as “Henchen” or “Elle”. “Gutenberg” was the name of one of his family’s houses within the city of Mainz, Germany.

Born into an aristocratic family, Gutenberg was not an aristocrat himself (his father married a commoner). It is not known when Gutenberg was born. Around 1900, the city of Mainz decreed his birthdate to have fallen in June 1400, allowing them to throw a big summer party in his honor. Gutenberg died in 1468 in Eltville, up the Rhein from Mainz.

Nicholas Jenson

Indices : Designers : Nicholas Jenson

Typefounder, born 1420 in France.

During the 1450s, Charles VII sent Nicholas Jenson to Mainz, Germany to learn the art of printing. There he became an apprentice to Johann Gutenberg.

After a nasty civil war in 1462, most of Mainz’s printers left the city. Many of them travelled to Italy, including Jenson—who ended up in Venice before 1470. There, he cast his famous type, which might be the first non-Blackletter type ever cast in the west.

Jenson died in Rome in 1480.

Carolingian Minuscule

Indices : History : Carolingian Miniscule

Sometimes called Caroline.

Around 800, Charlemagne—king of the Franks and the first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire—decided that all his lands should write out their Latin texts with the same handwriting style (even though he himself was illiterate). His court scholars developed a hand, which was loosely inspired by a variety of Uncial styles. This has been called Carolingian Minuscule by historians, and it looks almost identical to our current lowercase Latin alphabet.

During the Renaissance (c.1465), two German printers, Conrad Sweynheym and Arnold Pannartz, were hired by a monastery in Subiaco, Italy.


Indices : Uncial

Uncial letters, as well as Half Uncial, evolved from Greco-Roman handwriting. during the mid to late Antique period.

Uncial letters are often classified as being thoroughly Irish, but this is misleading at best, and inaccurate at worst.

Like almost all Roman things, there were western (Latin) and eastern (Greek) styles and variants. These would continuously influence each other.

St. Patrick and other Catholic Missionaries most likely brought Uncials to Ireland in the fifth century. Over the next four hundred years, Irish monks would copy (and re copy) virtually all of classical literature, bringing it back to an (ungrateful) continent during the 700s–800s.


Indices : Terminology : Serif

A serif is a flare at the end of a letter terminal. Serifs first appeared in Ancient Rome, around the end of the Republican era.

It is believed that Roman letterers would paint their letters with a brush onto stone before they would be cut. (Whether the letter-painter and the stone cutter were the same person has also been an object of dispute. But painted letters on stone walls were everywhere in the empire, as the ruins of Pompeii attest.) When one paints a letter with a brush, serif like flares occur naturally when pressure is applied at the end of the stroke. It is probably there from that the serif was born—the cut letter kept the form of the letter that had been set out by the brush.


Indices : Conferences : TypoTechnica

Technological focused conference organized by Linotype.

TypoTechnica is a forum for discussion regarding font design and production. The focus of the conferences is always on the cutting edge of font technology development. The conferences are organized by Linotype for the benefit of the entire community, and many of the lectures are organized by Adobe, Microsoft, LettError, etc.

The first TypoTechnica (at the time named the Linotype Font Technology Forum took place in 2001, in Heidelberg, Germany at the Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG’s Print Media Academy. Documentation may be found here.


Indices : Terminology : Rubylith

In the days of phototypesetting, which lasted from about the second World War until 1984, letters slowly moved away from being metal type.

In 1945, there were two kings of metal type, generally speaking. Lead type, sometimes called “cold metal type,” has still being cast for handsetting. This was Gutenberg’s method—500 years old, but still in use. Lead type was produced by a matrix. These matrices usually were made by stamping steel punches into some other sort of softer metal, sometimes copper. The other kind of metal type also used a combination of poured lead at matrices: “hot metal type,” or machine casting (using Linotype, Monotype, Intertype machines, etc.). The matrices for these machines were usually not made by hand, but rather with pantographic cutters, descended from Lynn Boyd Benton’s famous invention.


Indices : Foundries : Linotype

Founded in 1997, Linotype GmbH is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Monotype Imaging Inc.. Linotype is the current member of a long line of Linotype corporations. Previous Linotype corporations had purchased or merged with many of their competitors, including D. Stempel AG, Deberny and Peignot, Haas, and the Dr.-Ing Rudolf Hell GmbH.

The first Linotype entity (Mergenthaler Linotype) was founded in New York in 1890 by a German immigrant to the United States, Ottmar Mergenthaler, who had invented the first commercially viable typsetting machine in 1886, the Linotype Machine.

Cyrus Highsmith

Indices : Designers : Cyrus Hihgsmith

Fonts Designed:

Nobel - with Tobias Frere-Jones and Dyana Weissman

Benton Sans - with Tobias Frere-Jones

Bureau Roman - with David Berlow
Miller - with Matthew Carter, Tobias Frere-Jones
Miller Headline - with Matthew Carter

Daley’s Gothic
Loupot - with Laurie Rosenwald


Occupant Gothic





Additional Articles:

bezier curves

Indices : Terminology : Bezier Curves

Bezier curves are mathematical expressions used to describe curves in two or three dimensions. All fonts, excluding Bitmap fonts, use bezier curves to describe the character shapes. Because the curves are mathematical they have the advantage of being infinitely scaleable. Therefore, a character described in bezier curves can be resized to any size without losing quality. Bezier curves are sometimes referred to a “vector graphics”, contrasting with bitmaps which are called “raster graphics”. Some software that authors vector graphics are the following: Adobe Illustrator, Macromedia Freehand, Macromedia Flash, Deneba Canvas, Corel Draw, Fontographer and FontLab.

Dalton Maag

Dalton Maag was founded in 1991 by Bruno Maag and Liz Dalton after they returned from Chicago, USA, where Bruno worked for Monotype Corporation. Initially working on smaller projects, such as refining logotypes, we have been entrusted with providing typographic solutions for large, multi-national corporations.

Today, we boast a skilled staff and a high-quality client list, both corporate clients and design agencies, many of whom have returned to employ our skills and expertise again and again; many of whom have become our friends.

Our People
Bruno Maag, Managing Director
After graduating from Basel School of Design, Switzerland, with a degree in Typographic Design and Visual Communications, he emigrated to England to work for Monotype in their type studio. After a year and a half in England, Bruno transferred to Monotype Chicago where he was responsible for their custom typeface department. During this time he re-cut all of the typefaces then in use by The New Yorker magazine for use on Macintosh. After returning to England in 1991 Bruno started Dalton Maag with Liz Dalton. Bruno is also the current Chairman of The Typographic Circle.